Thursday, August 27, 2020

How do the qualities of reading practices outlined in McKenzie and Essay

How do the characteristics of perusing rehearses delineated in McKenzie and Grafton and Jardine's writings empower colonialism How did rea - Essay Example A conversation on the different characteristics of perusing rehearses helps in a recorded comprehension of the manners by which humanistic-partner prepared perusers absorbed and reacted to dominion and political change. For instance, the acquaintance of printed text with the Maori individuals in New Zealand affected their comprehension of the Treaty of Waitangi. At the end of the day, the perusing practices of the Maori impacted the significance of government and political change in the district. This paper makes an intelligent investigation of how the characteristics of perusing rehearses plot in McKenzie and Grafton and Jardine’s messages empower colonialism. One of the significant investigations of the standards of catalog, Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts by D.F. McKenzie builds up that the material type of writings surprisingly decides their implications. As per McKenzie, messages take on various structures and implications as they are repeated and re-read. He keep s up that a peruser in the quest for authentic implications moves from â€Å"the most moment highlight of the material type of the book to inquiries of authorial, artistic, and social setting. These all bear thus on the manners by which writings are then re-read, re-altered, re-planned, re-printed, and re-distributed. On the off chance that a background marked by readings is made conceivable just by a relative history of books, it is similarly obvious that a past filled with books will have no point on the off chance that it neglects to represent the implications they later come to make.† (McKenzie, 1999, p. 23). The importance picked up in the first place is totally changed in the perusing of the new types of the content which is re-perused, re-altered, re-planned, re-printed, and re-distributed. In this manner, one’s perusing practice is impacted by the material type of the book which, thusly, influences the significance of the content. Lisa Jardine and Anthony Graft on’s fundamental article â€Å"‘Studied for Action’: How Gabriel Harvey Read His Livy† is an exemplary case of how perusing practice can impact one’s understanding and significance of the content. In view of an investigation of how Gabriel Harvey rehearsed the perusing of Livy, Jardine and Grafton build up that Harvey’s translation of Livy is extensively changed each time he peruses it with various purposes in his psyche. The article keeps up that the distinctive perusing rehearses completed by Harvey prompted various results. Indeed, the distinctive perusing practices can prompt various implications of a similar book and this vacillation in the importance can influence the general result of the understanding practice. â€Å"Thus basic perusing, dexterous comment and dynamic apportionment rise as the focal aptitudes, of the understudy of history, yet of the scholarly tout court. Perusing consistently prompts activity †yet just legitimat e perusing in the way of a Gabriel Harvey.† (Jardine and Grafton, 1990, p. 76). As indicated by Jardine and Grafton, the early present day perusers used to effectively rework their writings as opposed to latently get it. In this article, the writers give a persuading representation regarding how the ‘reading as planned to offer ascent to something else’ can impact the significance of the content and, thusly, influence political changes. To them, academic perusing has consistently been objective arranged and directed under states of arduous mindfulness. Along these lines, â€Å"

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Act Local free essay sample

Disneys mythical studio diversion unit has a famous history in both movement and real to life highlights. The Lion King, discharged in 1994, is the most noteworthy earning enlivened film ever. All the more as of late, Disney has delighted in monstrous hits with live-activity highlights. These incorporate Pirates of the Caribbean and its continuations just as exemplary American passage, for example, the TV show High School Musical. Be that as it may, regardless of high overall mindfulness levels of the Disney brand, starting at 2006 just 25 percent of the companys incomes originated from outside the United States. Truly, the Disney group has made items at its central station in Burbank, California, and afterward sent out them to the remainder of the world. Presently, as the organization targets China, India, South Korea, and other developing markets, it is leaving from its one size fits all methodology. One factor driving the procedure change: the main year guest include in Hong Kong missed the mark regarding the objective figure of 5. We will compose a custom article test on Act Local or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page 6 million individuals. This provoked organization officials to increase determination to instruct the Chinese about Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and other Disney characters. As Bill Ernest, overseeing chief, told the Financial Times, If you havent grown up with the brand, the accounts, or the topic, you are not exactly sure what you are strolling into. In Hong Kong, Disney authorities were delayed to perceive that Chinese vacationers who live on the territory regularly book bundle visits. Visit administrators pick cafés, shopping openings, and different goals that create the most noteworthy expenses and commissions. From the start, Hong Kong Disneyland didnt offer a visit bundle that included suppers. Another eating with Disney program was immediately turned out. To balance the advancement, singular visit administrators were offered a 50 percent singular markdown as a motivation to visit Disneyland actually so they would have direct involvement with the recreation center. Disney has discovered that they cannot force the American will†or Disneys variant of itâ€on another landmass. Theyve made every effort to make Hong Kong Disneyland mix in with the environmental factors. 47 Dennis McAlpine, media and diversion inquire about master We have been U. S. - driven until the end of time. We understand that on the off chance that would have been a worldwide system, at that point we have to request material from around the globe. 48 Gary Marsh, Disney Channel Worldwide, remarking on Disneys new programming divisions in the UK and Japan Disney additionally put it all on the line to gain by a mysterious incident: As indicated by the customary Chinese schedule, 2008 was the time of the rodent. In Hong Kong, Mickey and Minnie Mouse wore uncommon red outfits as Disney declared 2008 to be the Year of the Mouse. Since the Chinese government firmly controls TV and film guidelines, Disney stressed moderate customer items, for example, extravagant toys and Disney-themed apparel to produce mindfulness and enthusiasm for the Disney brand. In 2009, in the midst of the worldwide financial downturn and progressing difficulties at Hong Kong Disneyland, Disneys Parks and Resorts division declared designs for another $3. 6 billion park in Shanghai. The proposed park will be claimed together by Disney and the Shanghai municipalgovernment. Comprising of an amusement park, inn, and shops, the advancement would make 50,000 truly necessary employments. Shanghai Disneyland is a significant component in Disneys procedure for infiltrating the nearby market. Be that as it may, the proposition doesn't address Disneys requirement for expanded media introduction; organization authorities accept that a Chinese Disney TV station is basic to construct familiarity with the Disney brand and enthusiasm for the new amusement park. Disneys different divisions are additionally seeking after an increasingly confined methodology in key developing markets. As Jason Reed, head supervisor for Walt Disney Studios International Productions, noted, Weve been effective with our huge worldwide creations, for example, Pirates of the Caribbean and National Treasure. Yet, we think theres a characteristic method to enhance these movies in territories like China, Russia, and Indiaâ€areas that have worked in film customs. For instance, in India Disney is deserting its go only it arrangement and banding together with neighborhood organizations, for example, Yash Raj Films. One new Hindi-language appear, Dhoom Machaao Dhoom, concerns a young ladies journey for personality in the wake of living in the United States; another show, Vicky and Vetal, concerns a young men fellowship with a 300-year-old apparition. The new methodology is plainly paying off. In 2008, Disney discharged Roadside Romeo, its originally energized highlight grew explicitly for India. The film was film industry gold, with the best opening few days of any Disney highlight in India. Disney is wanting to speak to Indias family-situated working class buyers; center subjects incorporate put stock in yourself, communicate, and commend your family. Since the quantity of digital TV supporters is progressively quickly, Disney propelled the Disney Channel and Toon Disney. Likewise, the organization gained Hugama, a childrens channel. Disney is likewise making Indian forms of its hit film High School Musical. One test in India is the quantity of dialects and tongues. Side of the road Romeo was discharged in Hindi, Tamil, and Teluga. Future ventures might be delivered explicitly for southern India where film inclinations are notably unique in relation to in the north. Disney is going local in other developing markets too. 2009s Book of Masters was the companys first real to life film for the Russian market. A Russian variant of High School Musical is additionally underway. Next up: the Middle East. As Disneys Jason Reed says, Theres an extremely solid liking between the solid family esteems in the district and the Disney brand. We need to go out and attempt to make a film that will play to families from North Africa to the Gulf States. Conversation Questions Why is it fundamental for Disney to construct plait mindfulness in China and other developing markets? Do you concur with Disneys choice to seek after a confinement approach in developing markets? For what reason is High School Musical~so effective in worldwide markets?

Friday, August 21, 2020

Cloud Computing and its Benefits for Small Businesses

Cloud Computing and its Benefits for Small Businesses Nowadays, we cannot talk about conducting business and bringing it online without the phrase “cloud computing” being mentioned. When the concept was first introduced, the big companies were the first to advocate it. This led to the misconception that it is applicable to mid-size to large operations, and that could not be farther from the truth. Today, even small businesses can also adapt cloud computing in their operations, and benefit greatly from it. © | MelpomeneIn this article, you will learn 1) what is cloud computing and 2) the benefits of cloud computing especially for smaller companies.CLOUD COMPUTINGBut, first things first: what is Cloud Computing?The simplest description we can probably use to give anyone an idea what cloud computing is would be “internet-based computing”, using “cloud” to represent the internet. But internet-based computing is very broad and does not fully define cloud computing.Cloud computing has been defined as the practice, or a model, of using a network consisting of remote servers that are hosted on the internet for storage, management, accessing and processing of data. It is markedly different from the traditional practice of storing, managing and processing data on the hard drive of a personal computer or, for many small businesses, on a local server. In other words, the major difference is in the sharing of resources; cloud computing allows sharing, while using only you r personal computer or local server does not.Another way to describe it would be to use the term “on-demand computing”. This is because, in cloud computing, shared data, information and other resources are provided to the computers and devices within the network on demand. And since we describe it as internet-based, all the servers, applications, storage and other services are delivered to the recipients or destinations within the organization through or via the internet.It sounds very complicated, but the concept is pretty straightforward. In cloud computing, groups of servers are made to run on (usually) low-cost and low-end technology (such as your basic personal computers) that have been configured for specialized connections. These server groups make up networks that, through the internet, distribute all the data processing tasks among them.Currently, there are no fixed standards for cloud computing, which means it is up to the companies to define and design the cloud compu ting technologies that they are using. Many find this preferable, since it allows for greater customization and, along with it, control by the company. Of course, companies that provide this type of service are bound to have their own standards, which the businesses availing of their services would have to follow or conform to.Types of cloud computingPublic cloudIn this type of cloud computing, service providers are the ones who are sought by businesses. The service provider is the one to make the applications, storage and other resources, and make them available to the general public, mainly over the Internet.Many businesses prefer a public cloud because of its ease of use and installation; they won’t set it up or install it, the provider will. There is also the added advantage of being inexpensive, particularly those who are operating within a tight budget. They no longer have to worry about investing on hardware and application, as well as bandwidth costs, since the service pro vider will have them all covered.Businesses that are growing will naturally have to deal with increasing needs in their computing resource. By availing of a public cloud, this would not be an issue, since service providers design their offerings for scalability in order to meet the expanding needs of their clients.Cost efficiency is a bigger advantage in this type of cloud computing as you only pay what you actually use. There are no wasted resources, such as applications or storage that you are paying for but do not need or actually even using, because you will be given only what you need. Therefore, you will not be made to pay for those resources that you were not able to use to begin with.Private cloudAs the name implies, this type of cloud is one that is managed by the business or the organization that uses it. Seeing as it is owned by the company, full control and customization is within the organization. The benefits are nearly the same as those that are obtained from a public cloud, except for the issue on ownership.In addition, private cloud also beats a public cloud in terms of security. By keeping the management of the computing resources in-house, you are limiting access and, consequently, security issues and leaks.It’s a different story when it comes to costs, however, since the company would have to allocate some of its resources to the payment of salaries and wages of personnel it will assign to manage the cloud. In some cases, the organization can even create a dedicated department or division to take charge of the job. There are also other expenses that will have to be incurred in cloud management, such as the cost of virtualization and other management tools that will be used by the personnel managing it.HybridThis combines features of public and private cloud, so it involves the management and maintenance of internal as well as external providers. Aside from personnel employed by the business to manage the cloud, third party service provide rs are also called in.This is generally preferred by many businesses because of its flexibility, as workloads are allowed to be moved between the platforms, especially in the face of changes in the company’s computing needs and the costs incurred in managing the cloud.What businesses who employ this type of cloud computing do is to entrust their less sensitive and critical resources to an external public cloud service provider, while leaving the more critical ones in-house, in the hands of their IT department.Others employ what is known as “cloud bursting”, where an application or resource is allowed to run in-house (private cloud) at first. However, when the computing capacity must be increased, such as when there is a sudden spike of demand for it, it will “burst” into a public cloud. Now, some managers may think this could be expensive but, as we all know of public cloud, companies will pay only for the resources they actually use.This type of cloud deployment is highly recommended for business with large or voluminous transactions, or those with complex operations. Of course, businesses would have to first assess their needs before they can decide which type of cloud computing they should use in their company.Cloud Computing for BusinessesCompute resources are considered by businesses as a utility â€" one that is consumed but has to be generated or maintained in some way. It has been likened to how businesses use electricity: many businesses, in their desire to ensure that they get the most of that specific resource, they decide to maintain their own infrastructure for power generation.That works similarly to cloud computing. With cloud computing, businesses do not have to build and subsequently maintain their own computing infrastructures for their consumption of their compute resources.If we talk in general terms, we can name three main benefits of cloud computing for businesses and other end users.Improved IT adaptability. Also referred to as IT elasticity, this refers to the ability of a company’s IT infrastructure to quickly increase or reduce its capacity and services without compromising its overall stability and performance. It should also be able to easily expand its capabilities without affecting the infrastructure’s compliance protocols. It is not enough for the IT infrastructure to be scalable; it should also have the ability to allow for “letting go” of resources or decreasing capacity, especially when they are deemed to be unnecessary.Self-service provisioning. Usually, companies would acquire the services of an external IT company or the expertise of third-party service providers for the setup, installation and maintenance of the applications, systems and services they use in business. However, thanks to cloud computing, the users can do it all themselves. It will be the users who will call the shots in the cloud computing environment.Users pay only what they use. Cloud computing allows for a metered or pay-per-use structure of payment, meaning the business will only pay for the actual workload and resources that they use, despite the fact that they have access to resources that can only be described as “unlimited”. In the past, it is common to see third-party service providers charging a fixed amount for its periodic subscription fees. However, these days, there is an evident rise in the number of service providers utilizing the pay-per-use payment structure.CLOUD COMPUTING FOR SMALL BUSINESSESWe have touched on the main benefits that businesses can derive from using cloud computing, but let us try to be more specific and focus on small businesses. The initial reaction of most small business owners when presented with the proposal of migrating to cloud would be to refuse, saying they are still too small an operation to merit using cloud. Others are also of the opinion that cloud computing is only for tech-related operations.However, once they realize what cloud computing ca n do for their small businesses, they will definitely be more open to the idea. Let us run through the many reasons why small businesses â€" yes, even those mom-and-pop shops â€" should move to the cloud.1. Lower costs, more savings, higher profitsSmall businesses are fully aware that they need hardware in order to facilitate their operations. But hardware does not come really cheap, and so some of them have to forcibly close their eyes and buy more hardware as their need increases. With cloud computing, hardware becomes more efficient. What they used to do using a roomful of computers can now be accomplished with just one or two units of hardware, situated in one corner of the office premises. In some cases, small businesses do not even have to buy new servers or powerful (and often expensive) machines, because by availing the services of a third-party provider, they will only have to pay a fee corresponding to what they used.So we are talking about less capital expenditure on hard ware and software, less physical floor area and rack space to accommodate hardware, and less electrical usage and power consumption. Even upgrading and maintaining hardware costs money, and those are costs that you can also do away with through cloud computing.Granted, computing services also cost money, and some even find the offerings of some service providers to be expensive. However, a simple cost-benefit analysis is most likely to reveal that the cost of paying these providers will be considerably lower than how much you would spend by going old-school.Lower costs mean that the small business will register higher net earnings, as well as more savings. It will also be able to put its resources to other ventures that will boost the business further.2. Increased flexibility and mobilitySmall businesses no longer have to be confined in one location: where their store or offices are located. Going mobile is certainly one of the current trends in business, and it is something that is bound to continue long into the future. Therefore, it would be to the advantage of small businesses to be more flexible and mobile.The most obvious advantage for small business would be the ability to access files, data and other information wherever they are, any time, using any device. This way, managers, employees and other members of the small organization are able to continue working even when they are away from the office. Being able to work remotely has been seen as an effective way to increase employee productivity.3. Facilitated collaboration among members of the organizationNo matter how small a business is, there are still instances when managers are unable to keep track of everything that is going on, or all the projects or tasks they have assigned to their staff. Through cloud computing, file sharing is enabled, so everyone can collaborate more easily.In the past, it is a painstaking process for more than two employees to be working on something that only has one sourc e file. This time, though, with the right permission settings, multiple employees can do so. And there is no need to worry about overlaps leading to confusion, since synchronization of all data will be done over the internet.4. Increased data security and document controlRecent developments in cloud computing technology were focused on improving security of data. Clearly, they must be effective, if we consider how even the largest companies in the world are migrating to cloud.Cloud now has security certificates and encryption processes that make data secure, thus giving small businesses peace of mind that vital and confidential information will remain so. Backup worries will plague managers and business owners less, especially since automatic backups are built into cloud.5. Increased competitivenessSmall businesses have a tendency to forever remain in the shadows of their larger rivals. Cloud computing somehow evens the playing field, particularly in terms of their IT infrastructure . As such, it gives a boost to their morale knowing that, at least in that area, they can keep pace with their competitors, even if they are much bigger and more powerful.6. Faster disaster recoveryBusinesses invest so much on high-end components for their IT infrastructure partly because of the fear that, in case of a disaster, they may lose all data and information. Recovery costs a lot of time and money, and small businesses often do not have these resources, so it takes a long time for full recovery to take place.For example, a simple power surge can have potentially devastating effects on a server, and if a small business stored everything in that server, you are looking at a major loss. There are various actions that may be taken to recover them, but that will take quite a while, so you are looking at lost productivity for days, even weeks and months.The backup and recovery solutions available in cloud make disaster recovery much faster, easier and fuss-free. Not only does it speed up the entire recovery period, it also saves them from spending money on purchasing new hardware, software and programs. Usually, companies call in third-parties who specialize in recovery solutions to take care of the problem, and these professionals do not charge cheap. That is another cost savings right there.7. Expedited workflowGoing about things the old way takes time, time that you could have spent doing other better and more productive activities. Communication becomes faster, thanks to cloud computing, and collaboration and sharing cuts down on the time it usually takes for employees to handle the logistics of meeting physically in one place, or doing their work at a designated location.Cloud computing aids greatly in speeding up the whole business process, so the company can bring its products or services much faster to the market and its end users.Fortunately for small businesses, there are a considerable number of cloud computing services that they can look into, w ith the most popular one being AWS, to name a few. When choosing which cloud computing tools to use, you’d have to look into their features to see which ones are needed by your small business.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Analysis Of The Last Man By Thomas Campbell Essay

The Encompassing of Solitude and the Manifesting of a Post-Apocalyptic Prediction The Earth’s apparent boundary between tangible existence and conceptual objectives consequently ignites curiosity throughout humanity, while the beckoning of man-kind’s search for reason throughout the unexplained components of life, thus, has become inevitable. In contrasting demeanor, some individual beings have lavished in the comfort that is granted to them through faith and religion. The repression of one’s inquisitive behavior reaps growth in acceptance of trivial mysteries regarding life. Likely, human reactions to genuine solitude vary and are ultimately subjective in accordance to each human’s differing perception. Debuting during the Revolutionary era in literature, â€Å"The Last Man† by Thomas Campbell embraced societal speculation, and provided interesting documentation that regarded the termination of the human race. The narrator of Campbell’s poe m, who presumably lacks the mortal conditions of the human species, garners a pessimistic outlook upon the forced separation between he and all mortal beings. Opposing Campbell’s dreary attitudes on the topic, Wordsworth delivered a speaker within his poem titled â€Å"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud† who insistently, and gleefully observed and portrayed nature from an area of chosen detachment. Within these poems, Wordsworth and Campbell centralized the concept of the complete isolation of man from all but the nature that surrounds him. InShow MoreRelatedJack the Ripper and H.H. Holmes1279 Words   |  5 Pagesin constructing his building/hotel. He barely paid a dime because he convinced workers that their job was unsatisfactory (Larson 67). The furniture companies would come looking for H. S. Campbell, the alias he used as the owner of the building, and he would tell them he was out on business (Larson 71-72). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Concept Of Social Stratification - 893 Words

The concept of social stratification is quite complex. It involves categorizing a person into socioeconomic levels based upon one’s profession, wealth, social status, and perceived power. Such a stratification makes up a social hierarchy, which involves placing groups of people in a higher standing than another group, with fewer people being included into the ‘higher’ classes. These concepts were not always apparent, only developing as result of human influence. Using Sumer and Uruk as examples, one is able to witness evidence of the formation of some of the earliest forms of complex social establishments. Further, both early civilizations illustrate the emergence of social strata as a result of social organization through agriculture and skill specialization, which still influence social strata. As societies and cultures have evolved through millennia, it is evident that the social strata has increasingly become complex and more people are included into the lower ranks, while the most elite becomes a smaller group of individuals and increasingly powerful. Sumer is one of the earliest ancient civilizations, located in modern Iraq. It was during the Bronze Age that Sumer was permanently settled, around 5500 BC. To survive and flourish in their environment, Sumerians developed the practice of irrigation. Through irrigation the Sumerian agriculture was able to greatly develop, allowing for a continued rise in population that may have accumulated to over 10,000 persons (HoleShow MoreRelatedThe Concept of Social Stratification1290 Words   |  5 PagesSocial stratification can be simply defined by stating that it is a system in which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy (Macionis, page 224). 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Core Tax Legislation and Study

Quetion: Discuss about the Core Tax Legislation and Study. Answer: Introduction: It has always been a confusion that whether the amount a person is receiving lies under the category of ordinary income or not! In many of the cases, this has not been resolved, although, there are some laws and legal obligations which completely explain the process of understanding the concept of ordinary income. In the present case, a girl named Peta has purchased a land in Kew where she thought of living with her family once she builds the three unit house. The other way around, she might want to sell the house on a profit. She has got two tennis courts in her land which she wanted to use for the construction of her house. But, the tennis club at the next door asked Peta to sell the land at a price of 600, 000$ but they put a condition for that, which states that Peta has to renovate the tennis courts before selling it. Peta agreed and spent 100, 000$ on it to sell it at a handsome price. This involved a great deal of work. Peta had to resurface the tennis courts and build new fences around them. She then sold the tennis courts in the current tax year to the tennis club for $600,000. Now the question is whether the amount of 600,000$ is an ordinary amount or not in the tax year! According to the law of Australia, the tax is imposed on the ordinary income of the individual which means that if a person is earning or receiving money through a direct or indirect source, that amount is known as the ordinary amount. (Crifo Diaye 2011) So, as far as the case is concerned where Peta has renovated both of the tennis courts in order to sell the house, the amount she is receiving against that house is a direct amount as she is the owner of the property. The Income Tax Assessment Act states that if Peta is an Australian resident, then, the ordinary amount is assessable. (Gaal 2013) It means if Peta was residing in Australia, then the amount she is getting against the tennis courts is the ordinary amount. So, under the statement of the law, it is quite clear that the receipt of 600,000$ is of ordinary amount. (Feldstein 2011) Peta has invested 100,000$ on the renovation because the next door tennis club asked Peta to renovate it and then sell it to them. She got 500,000$ as a profit from selling the tennis courts where she was thinking to build his own three unit house to live with her family. There have been so many misconceptions in the past about the concept of the ordinary income but the court has legally defined it in a very straight forward way. All the amounts which are normally considered as income are known to be the ordinary amounts. (Gravelle 2010) But even then, people get confused about the concept of ordinary income. The law has simply called the income ordinary if the income has been defined under such conditions: Income from personal activity like salary or wages Income from property like rent and interest Income from your business like farming, etc. (Odunlade 2012) So, the government has made the things easier for the people to understand but still problems come up like in the present case. However, the amount of 600, 000$ comes from the property Peta owned so, therefore, it comes under the second clause of the above mentioned criteria for understanding the concept of ordinary income. (Rand Tarp 2011) In simple words, the receipt of 600, 000$ is the ordinary amount. The ordinary income is considered to be the assessable income because this is the income which is liable to pay tax against itself. Although, there are some limitations upon which it is decided that whether the income is ordinary or not! The origin of the income matters in order to see whether it falls under the ordinary incomes or not! (Slemrod 2010) The law is slightly different for those who are not the residents of the Australia but as in the present case where Peta is living with her family in the house, the amount she received from the tennis club is the ordinary income. This is how it can be categorized and sorted out because there are too many ambiguities when it comes to the assessment of the ordinary income. (Reinhardt Steel 2006) It does not matter whether you are receiving the amount directly or indirectly, the amount which is linked to an Australian source would fall under the ordinary amount. (Royalty 2000) Peta received the amount directly from the tennis court which was owned by her so in this case, the receipt of 600, 000$ is pure ordinary income for Peta in the income year. Scenario: Fringe Benefits Tax is one of the kinds of tax which is imposed on the companies due to some of their acts. This type of tax is imposed on the company when the company is offering some non-cash benefits to its employees. The benefits which are provided to the employees vary because you will see in this scenario how people have been given different benefits. Alan is an employee at ABC Pty Ltd (ABC). He has negotiated with the company upon the following benefits to be provided: Salary of $300,000; Payment of Alan's mobile phone bill ($220 per month, including GST). Alan is under a two-year contract whereby he is required to pay a fixed sum each month for unlimited usage of his phone. Alan uses the phone for work-related purposes only; Payment of Alan's children's school fees ($20,000 per year). The school fees are GST free. ABC also provided Alan with the latest mobile phone handset, which cost $2,000 (including GST). At the end of the year ABC hosted a dinner at a local Thai restaurant for all 20 employees and their partners. The total cost of the dinner was $6,600 including GST. The case revolves around few parameters that if some changes have been made in the current scenario, then how FBT gets affected and what are the possibilities they can improve their FBT amount at the end of the financial year. Fringe benefits tax would be taken care of under different conditions and it has different variables for each country as per their laws and regulations. Fringe Benefits Tax is one of those taxes which have to be reported at the end of the financial year. There are some limitations on which these taxes are based. In the present case, Alan is getting a salary of 300, 000$ monthly with some of the other non-payment benefits like his phone bill is being paid by the ABC Pty Ltd which is about 220$ per month. Moreover, the company also bought a phone for Alan which costed 2000$. Lastly, the company is also taking care of his children school fee which 20,000$ annually. Plus, the company also arranged an annual dinner for all the 20 employees and it costed 6600$. Now, the consequences which the company might face according to the conditions of FBT include some of the following facts: If a company is giving the benefits to the employee which increases the amount of 2000$ from April 1 to 31 March, then the company is liable to pay FBT on the benefits. In the current scenario, the company is already giving benefits to Alan which is more than the amount of 2000$ annually. We can simply calculate it in this way: Alans per month phone charges: 220$ Annual phone charges: 220x12 = 2,640$ Cost of Mobile phone: 2000$ Cost of dinner for Alan: 330$ Cost of dinner for 20 employees: 6600$ Annual fringe benefits cost: 2640 + 2000 + 6600 Total = 11, 240$ The value clearly shows it is quite higher than the threshold value set by the law for FBT to be imposed. However, one thing should be clear about the FBT and that is, the amount which only include GST on it is liable to fall under FBT, otherwise it would not be considered as the amount to be used for FBT. (Matthews 2011) Now in the present case, ABC needs to submit the report of the fringe benefits amount which is known as reportable fringe benefits amount. The sum of the fringe benefits amounts for an employee after a year is known as reportable fringe benefits total. As you can see that the amount for the school fee is not included in the FBT amount because it does not have GST on it. Therefore, company has to pay the FBT amount in the month of the June. (Carroll et al. 2010) If ABC had only 5 employees, then the scenario might have been a bit different because the cost for the 20 employees at the dinner is quite more than the amount for the 5 employees. The amount gets reduced to only 1650$ at the dinner and then if we calculate the amount under the conditions of FBT, that is, the amount which include GST becomes 6, 280$ which is quite less than the amount calculated earlier. The consequences are less critical for the ABC Pty Ltd now because the FBT amount has been decreased. But, still the company has to pay the FBT for his employee. The law, however, varies from country to country and the value set by the government for FBT also differs. (Woellner et al. 2016) If clients of ABC also come in the dinner, then the scenario would have been changed completely because the amount would have been increased a lot and so is the GST. The more the amount of GST, the higher will be the FBT amount which company has to pay. (Saez 2013) So, fringe benefits tax is a totally different type of tax which is imposed on the company on the basis of the benefits offered to its employees. (Barkoczy 2016) It also includes the medical facility being provided to the employees. So, the amount has already crossed the threshold value which is only 2000$ and if the clients of ABC were also present in the dinner, then it would have cost a lot to ABC and the consequences might get worse. References Barkoczy, S., 2016. Core tax legislation and study guide.OUP Catalogue. Carroll, R., Joulfaian, D. and Mackie, J., 2010. Income versus consumption tax baselines for tax expenditures.National Tax Journal, Forthcoming. Crifo, P. and Diaye, M.A., 2011. The composition of compensation policy: from cash to fringe benefits.Annals of Economics and Statistics/Annales d'conomie et de Statistique, pp.307-326. Feldstein, M., Feenberg, D. and MacGuineas, M., 2011.Capping individual tax expenditure benefits(No. w16921). National Bureau of Economic Research. Gaal, J., 2013. Fringe benefits tax issues.Division 7A Handbook: The Practitioner's Guide to the Div 7A Rules, p.219. Gravelle, J.G., 2010. Practical Tax Reform for a More Efficient Income Tax.Va. Tax Rev.,30, p.389. Matthews, S., 2011. Trends in top incomes and their tax policy implications. Odunlade, R.O., 2012. Managing employee compensation and benefits for job satisfaction in libraries and information centres in Nigeria. Rand, J. and Tarp, F., 2011. Does gender influence the provision of fringe benefits? Evidence from Vietnamese SMEs.Feminist economics,17(1), pp.59-87. Reinhardt, S. and Steel, L., 2006. A brief history of Australia's tax system.Economic Round-up, (Winter 2006), p.1. Royalty, A.B., 2000. Tax preferences for fringe benefits and workers eligibility for employer health insurance.Journal of Public Economics,75(2), pp.209-227. Saez, E., 2013. Income inequality: evidence and policy implications.Arrow Lecture, Stanford University. Slemrod, J., 2010. Complexity in the Australian tax and transfer system. InMelbourne InstituteAustralias Future Tax and Transfer Policy Conference (p. 257). Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D., 2016.Australian Taxation Law 2016. Oxford University Press.